Insecurity in Nigeria: Addressing the Root Causes for Sustainable Peace




Nigeria, a nation known for its rich cultural heritage, diverse population, and abundant natural resources, has unfortunately been plagued by a persistent and complex security crisis. In recent years, the country has faced numerous challenges ranging from insurgency, communal clashes, banditry, and kidnapping to armed robbery, cybercrime, and ethno-religious tensions. The pervasive nature of insecurity in Nigeria has hampered social and economic development, threatened national unity, and undermined the trust of citizens in the government. This article delves into the underlying causes of insecurity in Nigeria and proposes essential measures to address this critical issue for sustainable peace.

Historical and Socioeconomic Factors:

To understand the roots of insecurity in Nigeria, one must consider the historical and socioeconomic factors that have contributed to its current state. Decades of political instability, corruption, and weak governance have eroded public trust and created a breeding ground for criminal activities. Socioeconomic inequalities, lack of access to quality education and healthcare, and high youth unemployment rates have left many disillusioned and susceptible to extremist ideologies or engaging in criminal behavior as a means of survival.

Ethnic and Religious Divides:

Another significant factor contributing to insecurity is the deep-rooted ethnic and religious divides in Nigeria. The country is home to over 250 ethnic groups, each with its cultural identity and aspirations. This diversity, while enriching, has also led to tensions and conflicts over land, resources, and political power. Similarly, religious differences, particularly between Christians and Muslims, have been exploited by extremist groups to fuel violence and perpetuate insecurity. Addressing these divides and promoting inter-ethnic and interfaith dialogue is crucial to fostering a united and peaceful Nigeria.

Insurgency and Militancy:

The rise of insurgency and militancy, particularly in the northeastern region of Nigeria, has significantly contributed to the overall insecurity in the country. Boko Haram, a notorious Islamist extremist group, has carried out numerous deadly attacks, causing the displacement of millions and disrupting socio-economic activities in the region. Similarly, in the Niger Delta region, militant groups have engaged in acts of sabotage, targeting oil installations and disrupting oil production, which has severe implications for Nigeria’s economy. Combating insurgency and militancy requires a multi-pronged approach that addresses the root causes of these movements, such as poverty, marginalization, and weak governance, while also focusing on security operations.

Weak Security Architecture and Corruption:

The effectiveness of Nigeria’s security architecture is a critical concern. Insufficient funding, inadequate training, and outdated equipment have hampered the capacity of security agencies to tackle the evolving security threats effectively. Furthermore, corruption within security agencies and the judiciary system undermines public trust, compromises investigations, and perpetuates impunity. Strengthening the security apparatus and implementing robust anti-corruption measures are imperative for restoring public confidence and ensuring the rule of law.


Way Forward:

Addressing insecurity in Nigeria requires a comprehensive and holistic approach involving the government, civil society, and citizens. The following measures should be prioritized:

1. Good Governance and Accountability: Promoting transparency, accountability, and efficient service delivery by strengthening institutions and tackling corruption will foster trust and enhance security.

2. Socioeconomic Development: Prioritizing job creation, quality education, healthcare, and poverty reduction programs will empower citizens, reduce vulnerability, and offer alternative paths to extremism and criminality.

3. Strengthening Security Apparatus: Investing in training, equipping, and adequately funding security agencies will enhance their capacity to respond to emerging threats effectively.

4. Promoting Dialogue and Reconciliation: Encouraging inter-ethnic and interfaith dialogue, promoting understanding, and addressing grievances will foster unity, reduce tensions, and prevent conflicts.

5. International Cooperation: Collaborating with regional and international partners to share intelligence, enhance border security, and counter transnational organized crime will help mitigate insecurity.

6. Youth Empowerment: Implementing youth-oriented programs, vocational training, and entrepreneurship initiatives will provide avenues for self-sufficiency, reducing the appeal of criminal activities.


The magnitude of insecurity in Nigeria demands urgent and sustained action. Addressing the root causes of insecurity through good governance, socioeconomic development, and inter-ethnic harmony is paramount. By implementing comprehensive strategies that combine security measures with initiatives for inclusive growth, Nigeria can overcome its security challenges and pave the way for a peaceful and prosperous future. The time to act is now, as a secure and stable Nigeria is essential not only for its citizens but also for regional stability and progress.

A 100 Level DELSU LAW Student in the Department of Commercial and Property Law (C.P.L)